Gait recognition is a behavioral biometric modality that identifies people based on their unique walking pattern. In comparison with other first-generation biometric modalities that include fingerprint and iris recognition, gait has the advantage of being unobtrusive, in that it requires no subject contact. Gait recognition is based on the notion that each person has a distinctive and idiosyncratic way of walking, which can easily be discerned from a biomechanic viewpoint. Human movement does consist of synchronized movements of hundreds of
The introduction of “Rapid DNA” technology will revolutionize the practice of forensics. The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is currently running a “Rapid DNA” initiative to develop commercial instruments capable of producing a CODIS-compatible DNA profile within two hours and to integrate those instruments effectively within the existing CODIS structure to search unsolved crimes while an “arrestee” is in police custody during the booking process. Rapid DNA describes a fully automated process of developing a “CODIS Core short tandem
Among various possible biometric modalities, DNA provides the most reliable personal identification. It is intrinsically digital, and does not change during a person’s life or at the time of their death. Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses. In the human body, DNA, which can be thought of as the blueprint of biological design, is folded inside the nucleus of each cell. It
In the mid-1990s, it was demonstrated by scientist Francine J. Prokoski that facial thermograms are unique to individuals, and that methods and systems for positive biometric identification using facial thermograms could be developed. Thermograms, generally, are visual displays of the amount of infrared energy emitted, transmitted, and reflected by an object, which are then converted into a temperature, and displayed as an image of temperature distribution. Infrared energy, and infrared light itself, is electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those
Developed in the 1980s, retinal scanning is one of the most well-known biometric technologies, but it is also one of the least deployed. Retinal scans map the unique patterns of a person’s retina. The blood vessels within the retina absorb light more readily than the surrounding tissue and are easily identified with appropriate lighting. A retinal scan is performed by casting an unperceived beam of low-energy infrared light into a person’s eye as they look through the scanner’s eyepiece. This
A biometric screening is an important component of a comprehensive health and wellness program wherein corporations measure their employees’ blood pressure, cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and blood glucose. Due to Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations, employers in the United States cannot take blood measurements without having an independent firm such as a wellness company or health screening organization perform the testing. For employers, biometric screenings provide important baseline data to shape the direction of their corporate wellness program.
Biometric technologies use physical characteristics, such as voice tone or hand shape, to identify people automatically. Behaviors, such as handwriting style, can also be used by computers in this way. The term “identify” is used here quite loosely. There is actually nothing in your voice, hand shape or any biometric measure to tell the computer your name, age or citizenship. External documents (passport, birth certificate, naturalization papers) or your good word establishing these facts must be supplied at the time
Introduction The term “biometrics” is derived from the Greek words “bio” (life) and “metrics” (to measure). Automated biometric systems have only become available over the last few decades, due to significant advances in the field of computer processing. Many of these new automated techniques, however, are based on ideas that were originally conceived hundreds, even thousands of years ago. One of the oldest and most basic examples of a characteristic that is used for recognition by humans is the face.
Biometric middleware is authentication software that enables various biometric devices and technologies and allows the match or no—match decisions made by core technologies to provide authentication to various PC applications and resources. Middleware solutions may be compatible with as few as five and as many as 25 different authentication solutions, with a focus on biometrics but also including smart cards and tokens. Authentication through these devices can provide access to operating systems, applications, or other protected resources. Middleware solutions can
Vascular pattern recognition, also commonly referred to as vein pattern authentication, uses near-infrared light to reflect or transmit images of blood vessels. Researchers have determined that the vascular pattern of the human body is unique to a specific individual and does not change as people age. Potential for the use of the technology can be traced to a research paper prepared in 1992 by Dr. K. Shimizu, in which he discussed optical trans-body imaging and potential optical CT scanning applications.